Discussion in 'The Bar' started by DrivenByDemons, Apr 10, 2013.
When someone says they are leaving after 100 posts it means they aren't leaving after 100 posts.
He/she wasn't ready for fame yet.
Bb's can put your eye out.
I was told not to worship false idols.
I should have listened.
so can icicles.
Is that a ghoulie in the window?
Sir Henry Bulwer, when first at Constantinople in I860, wrote some very important letters to Admiral Martin, the Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean. These form a kind of epoch in the history of Turkey, and, as all the parties concerned are now dead, I think it may be wise to publish the originals of Sir Henry Bulwer's comments, as was desired by the writer. Therapia, September 22, 1860. My dear Admiral â€” I promised to write you some state- ment on the affairs of Turkey : I will endeavour to do so, as fully as I can, though hastily. The fault of the old system of Turkish administration was that it placed immense responsibility in the hands of men in power, with life and death and confiscation of pro- perty completely in their hands: they abused this power and responsibility in as great a degree as men could well abuse it ; and the Government also, which had the right of condemning or approving their conduct, abused their own power and responsibility also. Heads went off in all direc- tions, with or without cause, and no man was certain for a day together of his life> his estate, or his purse. The reaction which followed towards milder measures went just as much too far in the inverse direction. The VOL. II 1 B 2 TURKISH FINANCES ch. effect has been everywhere to cripple individual power, and destroy individual responsibility ; and as everything in this country, from long habit, depends on individuals, the effect of a new system has been to destroy power everywhere. The Pacha in the provinces has his authority confounded with the Med j lis or Council, the one being able to throw the blame on the other. Every affair at Constantinople is referred to Councils, and no Minister can take the simplest measure appertaining to his own department without the Cabinet of Ministers discussing it or entering into it. You may easily imagine why nothing is done, as well as why no one is punished. Add to this, when the Turks were induced to abandon their former laws and usages, no new laws practicable under the circumstances were given to them ; whilst a number of general principles were laid down which the Turks naturally say should be applied in one way and the Christians in another. In this manner the jealousy it was intended to assuage has been immeasurably increased, and confusion added to inaction and impunity. Now as to finances. The expenses of Turkey have of late years been immeasurably increased, partly by reforms in Army or Navy : partly by wars, or the fear of war : and partly by the corruption which the knowledge that no chastisement awaited it was likely to encourage. A new feature in Turkish finance, moreover, now became visible. Formerly the Sultan spent what he had, and got what he could. Those who became wealthy were so many sponges, squeezed out on any occasion which called for the liquor they had sucked into themselves. A great portion of trade, and nearly all property, were moreover in the hands of Turks, who in great emergencies were always ready to sacrifice what they had for the sake of the representative of their race and their religion. The indulgences and privileges furnished of late years to the Christians have enabled them by their superior activity to get almost the entire trade of Turkey into their hands: they have become, much more than they were formerly, landed proprietors : they pay with more unwillingness, and their opposition is more formidable. Foreign loans came in to aid this state of things, and the Turk, finding he could xxxvi BORROWING 3 borrow money easily, spent it more lavishly. But with the fin a nci a l system derived from Europe, they had no know- ledge of managing, as Europeans manage, their finances either in checking expenditure or collecting taxes. Thus borrow ! borrow ! borrow ! was their only resource as immediate payments became necessary; and this on those terms by which the money wanted could most quickly be procured. Thus the revenue was pledged for six months or a year in advance; but as they who got it in from the people lent it out again to the Government, things in a certain way at least went on. When moreover the demands of Russia created general apprehensions, lenders would lend no more, and the Government stood with all its expenses going on and no revenue for seven or eight months to come. Added to this, the Government made a great mistake before I came here, contrary to every rational motive. Having determined on establishing a Bank, and recalling the paper money lately discredited, they should of course have made use of the new Bank to withdraw the discredited money. But instead of this, they make an arrangement by which the new Bank is not to issue for four months after the said paper money is withdrawn. They create in this manner a difficulty both as to withdrawing the paper money and starting the Bank. And finally, when they do withdraw four millions of paper, or more, from the circulation â€” without having anything else to replace it by â€” they increase their difficulties instead of alleviating them. Here we are consequently in a crisis : in order to get out of it two things are wanting. First, a loan to supply the six or seven months' current revenue which are pledged, and without which the current expenditure must stop ; and Seamd, a series of measures which, by offering some hopes of future improvement, will serve as a guarantee to those who lend their money now ; and here is the question I have been for some time past discussing with the Porte without getting very near to a conclusion, whilst in the meantime things were daily getting worse and worse. If there is not a loan, there must, I fear, be a bankruptcy, which, without saying more, would be a greater loss to English capital than the sum 4 TRIUMVIRATE OF STATESMEN ch. which is now required to be advanced. I am trying, how- ever, by various means, to get the Government through their financial difficulties ; and if they will only act with the least energy and decision, I shall do so. Now as to the politics of persons. Aali Pacha is a remarkably honest, well-informed, and intelligent man, but without any decision of character. He is for the moment temporary Grand Vizir.
Thread integrity, this is about bb's.
Thread integrity???? You've met me before, right???
or a werewolf, or vampire, or a mexican...
But, but, but...